1. Malcolm X was one-fourth white. His mother's father was Scottish.
2. The letter X represents the unknown and it is used by Black Muslims to symbolize the original and unknown last name of their African slave ancestors.
3. His nickname was Red when he was young because he had reddish hair.
4. In 1958, Malcolm married Betty X. They had six daughters, including a set of twins who were born after Malcolm died.
5. In 1971, Washington, . was the first city to celebrate Malcolm X Day.
6. Of the three men sentenced to prison for killing Malcolm X, two of them still claim they are innocent.
As Martin Luther King preached his gospel of peaceful change and integration in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Malcolm X delivered a different message: whites were not to be trusted. He called on African Americans to be proud of their heritage and to set up strong communities without the help of white Americans. He promoted the establishment of a separate state for African Americans in which they could rely on themselves to provide solutions to their own problems. Violence was not the only answer, but violence was justified in self-defense. Blacks should achieve what was rightfully theirs "by any means necessary."