Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love".  In ancient China, some evidence indicates in some cases, two clans had a longstanding arrangement wherein they would only marry members of the other clan. Some men also practiced sororate marriage , that is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters. This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable.  In the ancient system of the Erya dating from around the third century BC, the words for the two types of cross cousins were identical, with father's brother's children and mother's sister's children both being distinct.  However, whereas it may not have been permissible at that time, marriage with the mother's sister's children also became possible by the third century AD.  Eventually, the mother's sister's children and cross cousins shared one set of terms, with only the father's brother's children retaining a separate set.  This usage remains today, with biao (表) cousins considered "outside" and paternal tang (堂) cousins being of the same house.  In some periods in Chinese history, all cousin marriage was legally prohibited, as law codes dating from the Ming Dynasty attest. However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored. 
USC Seniors win the NSGC Cultural Competency Scholarship
Two Years In a Row!!
Congratulations Brittanie Morris!! The National Society of Genetic Counselors Membership Committee recognized senior student Brittanie Morris with the 2013 Cultural Competency Scholarship. Brittanie thoughtfully considers our profession and its intersection with the great cultural diversity of our patient population. Check out her award winning essay . Please also look for her master’s thesis research in the future, which examines the influence of culture on the genetic counseling process, primarily focusing on the perspectives of counselors from minority groups.
In response to World War I , progressive 28th President Woodrow Wilson 's Fourteen Points established the concept of national self-determination and criticized imperialist competition and colonial injustices; these views were supported by anti-imperialists in areas of the world that were resisting imperial rule.  During the period of acceptance of economic Keynesianism , circa 1920s to 1970s, there was widespread acceptance in many nations of a large role for state intervention in the economy . However, with the rise of neoliberalism and challenges to state interventionist policies in the 1970s and 1980s, centre-left progressive movements responded by creating the Third Way that emphasized a major role for the market economy .  There have been social democrats who have called for the social democratic movement to move past Third Way.  Prominent progressive conservative elements in the British Conservative Party have criticized neoliberalism.