As one consequence, workplace democracy (sometimes referred to as Workers' self-management ) has become both more common and advocated to a greater extent, in some places distributing all management functions among workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy . All management embraces to some degree a democratic principle—in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management. Otherwise, they leave to find other work or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace as de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control is evident in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower-level workers. 
The MBA dissertation (or thesis in some universities) will, in general, comprise the following in some combination:  a discussion of the literature , providing a critical review and structuring of what is known on a given topic, with a view to addressing a specific problem; a case study that goes beyond simple description, containing the analysis of hitherto unpublished material; a test of the application or limitations of some known principle or technique in a particular situation, and / or suggested modifications. As an alternative to the dissertation, some programs instead allow for a major project.  Here (part-time) students will address a problem current in their organization; particularly in programs with an action learning orientation, these may be practically oriented.  Most MBA programs require additional course work in research methodology, preceding the dissertation or project. Some programs allow that the research component as a whole may be substituted with additional elective coursework.