American slave culture essay

African American children are socialized in the home, but the church often plays an important role. Parents depend upon other family members to chastise, instruct, and discipline their children, particularly if the family members live in proximity and the children know them well. Socialization takes place through rites and celebrations which grow out of either religious or cultural observances. There is a growing interest in African child socialization patterns with the emergence of the Afrocentric movement. Parents introduce the mfundalai rites of passage at an early age in order to provide the child with historical referents. Increasingly this rite has replaced religious rites within the African American tradition for children. Although it is called mfundalai in the Northeast, it may be referred to as Changing Season Rite in other sections of the United States. This was done in the past in the churches and schools where children had to recite certain details about heroines and heroes or about various aspects of African American history and culture in order to be considered mature in the culture. Many independent schools have been formed to gain control over the cultural and psychological education of African American children. A distrust of the public schools has emerged during the past twenty five years because African Americans believe that it is difficult for African American children to gain the self confidence they need from teachers who do not understand or are insensitive to the culture. Youth clubs established along the lines of the African age-set groups are popular as drill teams and formal youth groups often called "street gangs" if they engage in delinquent behavior. These groups are more often than not, healthy expressions of male and sometimes female socialization clubs. Church groups and community center organizations seek to channel the energies of these groups into positive socialization experiences. They are joined by the numerous Afrocentric workshops and seminars that train young people in the traditional behaviors and customs.

Latin America can be divided into several musical areas . Andean music , for example, includes the countries of western South America, typically Peru , Bolivia , Argentina , Ecuador , Chile and Venezuela ; Central American music includes Nicaragua , El Salvador , Belize , Guatemala , Honduras , and Costa Rica . Caribbean music includes the Caribbean coast of Colombia , Panama , and many Spanish and French-speaking islands in the Caribbean, including Haiti , the Dominican Republic , Cuba , Puerto Rico , and the less noted Martinique and Guadeloupe . The inclusion of the French West Indies varies by scholars. [11] Brazil perhaps constitutes its own musical area, both because of its large size and incredible diversity as well as its unique history as a Portuguese colony. Although Spain isn't a part of Latin America, Spanish music (and Portuguese music ) and Latin American music strongly cross-fertilized each other, but Latin music also absorbed influences from the Anglo-Saxon world, and particularly, African music.

American slave culture essay

american slave culture essay


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